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The Long Reach of American Corrections

PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
PER OFFENDER PER DAY
PRISON
PROBATION AND PAROLE
1983 2008
$39.46
$0.73 $2.16
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
$40
$26.05
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Alabama
POPULATION COSTS
1in 32adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 90
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 43 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 11); the figure for 1982 was
43 percent (national rank: 3)
1
$420 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 2.5 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($39.46) = 18 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
51,7451 5743
61,952 1in 57 27
7,7901 1,8433
27,8161 3,6744
46,891 1in 75 6
15,4015
108,843 1in 32 20
Revised as of 03.24.09
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
3,000
6,000
9,000
12,000
15,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$243.16
$184.20
$13.26 $1.07
$128.93
$111.48
$5.95
$0.54 $1.43 $1.72
2003 2 2008 2003 008
$0.79 $0.58
0
50
100
150
200
$250 million
0
30
60
90
120
$150
PRISON
PROBATION
PAROLE
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Alaska
POPULATION COSTS
1in 36adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 90
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 41 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 13); the figure for 1982 was
40 percent (national rank: 5)
1
$240 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 4.7 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Alaska spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 6 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($128.93) = 90 days of
parole or 22 days of probation5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
6,4161 833
8,263 1in 61 33
1,5441 2203
5,1671 5094
5,742 1in 88 12
665
14,005 1in 36 28
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
30,000
60,000
90,000
120,000
150,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTALSPENDING PER YEAR
CORRECTIONS
1988 2008
$951.00
$207.00
0
200
400
600
800
$1,000 million
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Arizona
POPULATION COSTS
1in 33adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 79
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 40 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 16); the figure for 1982 was
35 percent (national rank: 17)
1
$951 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 9.5 percent in fiscal year 20086
Detailed correctional cost data for Arizona were not
available.
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
76,8301 6803
86,811 1in 55 24
6,8071 2,4943
37,7001 3,9674
57,410 1in 83 10
15,7435
144,221 1in 33 23
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$286.94
$30.58
PRISON
PROBATION
AND PAROLE
$21.25 $29.54
$57.13
$19.09
$1.47 $1.22
1983 2003 1 2008 983 2003 2008
0
50
100
150
200
250
$300 million
0
10
20
30
40
50
$60
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Arkansas
POPULATION COSTS
1in 29adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 134
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 29 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 36); the figure for 1982 was
43 percent (national rank: 2)
1
$348 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 8 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Arkansas spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 10 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($57.13) = 47 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
31,6761 2873
52,113 1in 41 15
19,3881 7623
13,3071 1,5444
21,080 1in 102 22
6,2295
73,193 1in 29 16
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
100,000
200,000
300,000
400,000
500,000
600,000
700,000
800,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$6,834.28
$2,750.76
$1,040.63 $627.00
$134.83
$46.55
$7.10
$5.29
$10.83 $10.79
1999 1 2007 2 2008 999 2007 008
$1,039.27 $412.85 0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
$8,000 million
PRISON
PROBATION
PAROLE
0
30
60
90
120
$150
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
California
POPULATION COSTS
1in 36adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 69
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 35 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 26); the figure for 1982 was
28 percent (national rank: 27)
1
$9.66billion
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 9.3 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar California spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 15 cents on parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($134.83) = 12 days of
parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
353,9691 2,0843
488,264 1in 56 25
123,7641 8,4473
171,5001 12,8304
266,992 1in 102 23
82,6625
755,256 1in 36 29
Revised as of 03.24.09
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
30,000
60,000
90,000
120,000
150,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$596.42
$427.12
$52.60 $28.53
$76.51
$72.72
$2.40 $3.62
$12.86 $13.28
2003 2 2008 2003 008
0
100
200
300
400
500
$600 million
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
$80
$34.71 $18.36
PRISON
PROBATION
PAROLE
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Colorado
POPULATION COSTS
1in 29adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 102
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 30 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 33); the figure for 1982 was
26 percent (national rank: 31)
1
$625 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 8.6 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Colorado spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 15 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($76.51) = 6 days of
parole or 21 days of probation5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
77,6351 2383
89,913 1in 41 16
11,0861 9543
22,6661 1,7364
38,273 1in 97 18
13,8715
128,186 1in 29 15
PROBATION PAROLE PRISON and JAIL
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
1983 2008
TOTALSPENDING PER YEAR
PRISON
$676.36
$64.26
$0.81 $17.58 0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
$800 million
PAROLE
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Connecticut
POPULATION COSTS
1in 33adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 59
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 27 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 37); the figure for 1982 was
13 percent (national rank: 50)
1
$699 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 4.3 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Connecticut spent
on prisons in 2008, it spent 3 cents on parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
57,4931 2143
60,494 1in 44 18
2,1771 6103
20,9241 1,2374
22,161 1in 121 35
05
82,655 1in 33 22
PROBATION PAROLE PRISON and JAIL
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$140.01
$102.49
PRISON
PROBATION AND PAROLE
$26.80
$1.94
$94.05
$71.75
$4.26 $0.96
1983 2003 2 2008 1983 2001 008
0
30
60
90
120
$150 million
0
20
40
60
80
$100
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Delaware
POPULATION COSTS
1in 26adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 59
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 30 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 32); the figure for 1982 was
28 percent (national rank: 28)
1
$200 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 6.1 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Delaware spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 19 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($94.05) = 22 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
16,6961 843
17,498 1in 38 14
5351 1833
7,2761 3084
7,584 1in 88 11
05
25,082 1in 26 11
Revised as of 03.24.09
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
District of Columbia
POPULATION COSTS
1in 21adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 27
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 42 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 12); the figure for 1982 was
37 percent (national rank: 14)
1
The Pew Center on the States did not collect
correctional cost data for the District of Columbia.
For more information and an explanation, please see
“District of Columbia”in the state notes section of the
main report.
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
6,4851 3363
13,386 1in 35 9
5,5691 9963
01 6,6064
9,506 1in 50 1
2,9005
22,892 1in 21 3
Revised as of 03.24.09
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
100,000
200,000
300,000
400,000
500,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTALSPENDING PER YEAR
1988 2008
CORRECTIONS
$2,819.00
$502.00
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
$3,000 million
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Florida
POPULATION COSTS
1in 31adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 74
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 38 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 20); the figure for 1982 was
40 percent (national rank: 8)
1
$2.82billion
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 10 percent in fiscal year 20086
Detailed correctional cost data for Florida were not
available.
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
274,0791 1,4833
287,361 1in 50 22
4,6541 7,1453
97,0721 13,4554
175,074 1in 82 8
64,5475
462,435 1in 31 18
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
100,000
200,000
300,000
400,000
500,000
600,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$1,013.29
$133.26
$82.14 $14.91
$47.96
$26.43
$0.45 $1.38
$4.91 $2.28
1983 2 2008 1983 2007 008
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
$1,200 million
$41.71 $4.36
PRISON
PROBATION
PAROLE
0
10
20
30
40
$50
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Georgia
POPULATION COSTS
1in 13adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 37
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 18 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 47); the figure for 1982 was
22 percent (national rank: 40)
1
$1.1billion
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 5.9 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Georgia spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 12 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($47.96) = 10 days of
parole or 36 days of probation5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
435,3611 7653
461,823 1in 15 1
23,1111 2,5863
49,3371 5,8714
100,940 1in 70 4
45,7325
562,763 1in 13 1
PROBATION PAROLE PRISON and JAIL
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTALSPENDING PER YEAR
PRISON
PAROLE
PROBATION
1994 1998 2003 20072008
$37.14
$32.51
$7.23 $6.89
$1.68 $2.24
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
$40 million
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Hawaii
POPULATION COSTS
1in 32adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 90
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 29 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 34); the figure for 1982 was
20 percent (national rank: 44)
1
$228 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 4.3 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Hawaii spent on
corrections in 2008, 4 cents went to probation and
parole5,6
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
19,4261 1363
22,345 1in 45 19
2,1101 6733
5,9781 3,2974
9,275 1in 108 27
05
31,620 1in 32 19
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$147.28
$15.66
PRISON
PROBATION
AND PAROLE
$19.65
$3.57
$61.19
$16.46
$2.73 $4.16
1988 2 2008 1988 008
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
$80
0
30
60
90
120
$150 million
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Idaho
POPULATION COSTS
1in 18adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 128
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 17 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 48); the figure for 1982 was
31 percent (national rank: 24)
1
$207 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 7.3 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Idaho spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 13 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($61.19) = 15 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
48,6631 1053
52,176 1in 21 2
3,1141 2943
6,7441 4594
11,055 1in 100 21
3,8525
63,231 1in 18 2
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTALSPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$1,024.72
$871.42
PRISON
PAROLE
$46.80 $54.50
$61.36
$55.47
$3.84 $4.48
2003 2 2008 2003 008
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
$1,200 million
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
$80
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Illinois
POPULATION COSTS
1in 38adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 83
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 29 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 35); the figure for 1982 was
24 percent (national rank: 36)
1
$1.36billion
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 6.1 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Illinois spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 5 cents on parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($61.36) = 14 days of
parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
142,7901 7053
179,853 1in 54 23
33,3541 3,0043
45,2151 7,3004
72,923 1in 133 37
20,4085
252,776 1in 38 34
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTALSPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$488.63
$225.30
PRISON
PAROLE
$4.98 $8.60
$54.28
$42.97
$2.87 $4.72
1993 2 2008 1993 008
0
100
200
300
400
$500 million
0
10
20
30
40
50
$60
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Indiana
POPULATION COSTS
1in 26adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 106
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 24 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 43); the figure for 1982 was
33 percent (national rank: 20)
1
$669 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 5.3 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Indiana spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 2 cents on parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($54.28) = 19 days of
parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
126,5621 2103
138,256 1in 35 8
10,3621 1,1223
25,1301 2,5334
43,203 1in 111 30
15,5405
181,459 1in 26 9
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$270.32
$191.79
PRISON
PROBATION AND PAROLE
$30.56 $34.46
$85.02
$62.45
$1.98 $4.03
2003 2 2008 2003 008
0
50
100
150
200
250
$300 million
0
20
40
60
80
$100
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Iowa
POPULATION COSTS
1in 54adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 132
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 35 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 28); the figure for 1982 was 25
percent (national rank: 34)
1
$353 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 6 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Iowa spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 13 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($85.02) = 21 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
22,7761 1183
27,425 1in 83 41
3,5461 9853
8,7321 2,4384
14,869 1in 154 43
3,6995
42,294 1in 54 46
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTALSPENDING PER YEAR
CORRECTIONS
1988 2008
$341.00
$76.00
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
$400 million
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Kansas
POPULATION COSTS
1in 53adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 87
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 44 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 9); the figure for 1982 was 23
percent (national rank: 38)
1
$341 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 5.6 percent in fiscal year 20086
Detailed correctional cost data for Kansas were not
available.
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
16,1311 1363
21,806 1in 96 45
4,8421 6973
8,6961 1,7514
17,469 1in 120 34
7,0225
39,275 1in 53 45
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$281.72
$191.77
PRISON
PROBATION AND PAROLE
$25.55 $35.72
$52.17
$47.11
$2.64 $3.43
2003 2 2008 2003 008
0
50
100
150
200
250
$300 million
0
10
20
30
40
50
$60
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Kentucky
POPULATION COSTS
1in 35adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 104
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 38 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 18); the figure for 1982 was 26
percent (national rank: 30)
1
$521 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 5.5 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Kentucky spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 13 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($52.17) = 20 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
42,5101 2733
56,727 1in 57 28
12,7411 1,2033
14,5451 2,3844
35,266 1in 92 16
18,3375
91,993 1in 35 26
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
30,000
60,000
90,000
120,000
150,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$547.79
$105.61
PRISON
PROBATION
AND PAROLE
$11.36
$62.20
$39.75
$19.56
$1.24 $2.70
1983 2 2008 1983 008
0
100
200
300
400
500
$600 million
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
$40
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Louisiana
POPULATION COSTS
1in 26adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 79
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 47 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 7); the figure for 1982 was 39
percent (national rank: 11)
1
$625 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 6.4 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Louisiana spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 11 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($39.75) = 15 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
39,0061 5413
65,157 1in 48 21
24,0851 1,5253
20,4611 2,9624
57,050 1in 55 2
33,6275
122,207 1in 26 7
0
3,000
6,000
9,000
12,000
15,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$92.33
$14.31
PRISON
PROBATION
AND PAROLE
$9.04 $5.06
$119.49
$49.08
$2.16 $3.12
1983 1988 2 2008 1983 1988 008
0
20
40
60
80
$100 million
0
20
40
60
80
100
$120
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Maine
POPULATION COSTS
1in 81adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 167
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 36 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 23); the figure for 1982 was
34 percent (national rank: 18)
1
$153 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 4.9 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Maine spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 10 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($119.49) = 38 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
7,8531 563
8,247 1in 126 49
321 3063
2,2221 5454
4,605 1in 226 51
1,8385
12,852 1in 81 50
Revised as of 03.24.09
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$688.71
$206.29
PRISON
PROBATION
AND PAROLE
$94.06
$37.57
$86.01
$45.07
$4.79 $2.05
1988 2 2008 1988 008
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
$800 million
0
20
40
60
80
$100
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Maryland
POPULATION COSTS
1in 27adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 41
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 27 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 38); the figure for 1982 was
22 percent (national rank: 41)
1
$1.19billion
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 8.2 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Maryland spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 14 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($86.01) = 18 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
98,4701 8393
115,136 1in 37 11
13,8561 1,9713
23,2821 4,7264
41,640 1in 103 24
13,6325
156,776 1in 27 12
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTALSPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$532.80
$171.76
PRISON
PAROLE $20.80
$15.71
$130.16
$62.70
$7.12 $4.99
1988 2006 2 2008 1988 2006 008
0
100
200
300
400
500
$600 million
0
30
60
90
120
$150
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Massachusetts
POPULATION COSTS
1in 24adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 127
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 13 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 50); the figure for 1982 was 22
percent (national rank: 39)
1
$1.25billion
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 4.6 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Massachusetts spent
on prisons in 2008, it spent 4 cents on parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($130.16) = 18 days of
parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
175,4191 2143
179,854 1in 28 3
3,2091 1,0123
11,3001 1,6934
26,387 1in 190 47
13,3945
206,241 1in 24 5
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$1,724.53
$1,131.25
PRISON
PROBATION AND PAROLE
$179.65 $135.53
$89.91
$64.82
$5.84 $7.37
1998 2 2008 1998 008
0
500
1,000
1,500
$2,000 million
0
20
40
60
80
$100
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Michigan
POPULATION COSTS
1in 27adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 110
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 26 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 39); the figure for 1982 was
39 percent (national rank: 9)
1
$2.18billion
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 22 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Michigan spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 10 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($89.91) = 15 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
182,7061 3513
206,206 1in 37 10
21,1311 2,0183
50,1901 4,3094
72,599 1in 105 26
18,1005
278,805 1in 27 13
Revised as of 03.24.09
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$292.00
$173.60
PRISON
PROBATION AND PAROLE
$60.90
$40.48
$89.77 $86.00
$3.13 $3.73
1998 2 2008 1998 008
0
50
100
150
200
250
$300 million
0
20
40
60
80
$100
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Minnesota
POPULATION COSTS
1in 26adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 98
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 12 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 51); the figure for 1982 was
14 percent (national rank: 49)
1
$460 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 2.6 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Minnesota spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 21 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($89.77) = 24 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
127,7971 1573
133,578 1in 30 4
4,7441 8803
8,9501 1,7064
18,741 1in 211 50
8,0855
152,319 1in 26 8
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$33.23
$24.10
PRISON
PROBATION
AND PAROLE
$13.00
$4.29
$35.69
$18.06
$1.07 $1.30
1983 2 1993 1 2008 1983 993 008
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
$40
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
$35 million
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Mississippi
POPULATION COSTS
1in 38adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 105
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 55 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 1); the figure for 1982 was 43
percent (national rank: 4)
1
$266 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 6.4 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Mississippi spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 39 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($35.69) = 27 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
21,6231 3533
25,139 1in 86 42
2,0151 1,1483
17,4791 1,9734
31,069 1in 69 3
11,6175
56,208 1in 38 33
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
30,000
60,000
90,000
120,000
150,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$475.39
$49.01
PRISON
PROBATION
AND PAROLE
$94.68
$10.25
$45.02
$17.33
$2.47 $1.20
1983 2 2008 1983 008
0
100
200
300
400
$500 million
0
10
20
30
40
$50
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Missouri
POPULATION COSTS
1in 36adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 97
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 37 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 22); the figure for 1982 was
32 percent (national rank: 22)
1
$575 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 6.8 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Missouri spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 20 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($45.02) = 13 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
56,2401 5483
79,578 1in 56 26
19,8491 2,9413
29,8571 5,5394
46,035 1in 97 19
10,6395
125,613 1in 36 27
Revised as of 03.24.09
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$76.46
$9.79
PRISON
PROBATION
AND PAROLE
$13.48
$3.71
$84.29
$27.83
$2.36 $4.63
1983 2 2008 1983 008
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
$80 million
0
20
40
60
80
$100
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Montana
POPULATION COSTS
1in 44adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 125
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 37 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 21); the figure for 1982 was
27 percent (national rank: 29)
1
$169 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 8.6 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Montana spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 18 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($84.29) = 18 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
9,1061 1523
10,695 1in 70 38
9661 4713
2,9401 1,0584
6,302 1in 118 33
2,3045
16,997 1in 44 39
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$155.71
$52.96
$2.80
$27.19
$95.48
$55.32
$1.40 $2.10
$5.15 $8.78
1983 2 1993 1 2008 1983 993 2006 008
$1.23 $2.35 0
50
100
150
$200 million
PRISON
PROBATION
PAROLE
0
20
40
60
80
$100
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Nebraska
POPULATION COSTS
1in 44adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 87
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 31 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 31); the figure for 1982 was
21 percent (national rank: 43)
1
$179 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 5.1 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Nebraska spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 19 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($95.48) = 11 days of
parole or 45 days of probation5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
18,9101 1193
20,860 1in 64 35
8001 1,0313
4,5051 1,6794
9,335 1in 143 41
3,1515
30,195 1in 44 40
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
TOTALSPENDING PER YEAR
PRISONS
PROBATION AND PAROLE
1999 2003 2008
$268.44
$182.48
$46.83
$25.58
0
50
100
150
200
250
$300 million
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Nevada
POPULATION COSTS
1in 48adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 66
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 54 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 3); the figure for 1982 was 38
percent (national rank: 12)
1
$253 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 7.9 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Nevada spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 17 cents on probation and
parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
13,4611 3153
18,324 1in 106 47
3,6531 8953
13,2451 1,3724
21,848 1in 89 14
7,2315
40,172 1in 48 43
Revised as of 03.24.09
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$102.96
$75.86
PRISON
PROBATION AND PAROLE
$6.43 $9.39
$89.73
$77.08
$3.40 $2.13
2003 2 2008 2003 008
0
20
40
60
80
100
$120 million
0
20
40
60
80
$100
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
New Hampshire
POPULATION COSTS
1in 88adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 184
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 43 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 10); the figure for 1982 was
25 percent (national rank: 33)
1
$101 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 6.8 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar New Hampshire
spent on prisons in 2008, it spent 9 cents on
probation and parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($89.73) = 42 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
4,6501 533
6,600 1in 155 51
1,6531 2443
2,8911 3804
5,028 1in 204 48
1,7575
11,628 1in 88 51
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTALSPENDING PER YEAR
CORRECTIONS
1988 2008
$1,581.00
$466.00
0
400
800
1,200
1,600
$2,000 million
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
New Jersey
POPULATION COSTS
1in 35adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 87
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 25 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 41); the figure for 1982 was
21 percent (national rank: 42)
1
$1.58billion
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 4.8 percent in fiscal year 20086
Detailed correctional cost data for New Jersey were not
available.
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
126,3901 7493
143,899 1in 46 20
15,0431 1,7173
25,3591 2,5884
47,574 1in 140 39
19,6275
191,473 1in 35 24
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTALSPENDING PER YEAR
PRISON
PROBATION AND PAROLE
1983 1994 2008
$262.34
$61.32
$29.77
$10.44 0
50
100
150
200
250
$300 million
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
New Mexico
POPULATION COSTS
1in 35adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 108
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 39 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 17); the figure for 1982 was 36
percent (national rank: 16)
1
$277 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 4.6 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar New Mexico spent
on prisons in 2008, it spent 11 cents on probation
and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
20,7741 2493
25,663 1in 58 29
3,5271 1,1133
6,3501 1,8394
16,534 1in 90 15
8,3455
42,197 1in 35 25
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
400,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
1983 2008
TOTALSPENDING PER YEAR
$2,606.00
$489.90
$76.40 $34.7 $30.80
$224.30
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
2,500
$3,000 million
PRISON
PROBATION
PAROLE
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
New York
POPULATION COSTS
1in 53adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 93
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 36 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 24); the figure for 1982 was
31 percent (national rank: 23)
1
$2.87billion
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 5.4 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar New York spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 12 cents on probation and
parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
119,9631 1,7773
181,444 1in 82 40
53,6691 6,0353
62,6021 9,7694
100,771 1in 148 42
28,4005
282,215 1in 53 44
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$1,066.56
$733.34
PRISON
PROBATION AND PAROLE
$161.28
$121.96
$74.77
$57.92
$2.41 $3.18
2003 2 2008 2003 008
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
$1,200 million
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
$80
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
North Carolina
POPULATION COSTS
1in 38adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 60
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 35 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 29); the figure for 1982 was
28 percent (national rank: 26)
1
$1.25billion
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 6.2 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar North Carolina spent
on prisons in 2008, it spent 15 cents on probation
and parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($74.77) = 24 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
111,4461 6113
118,278 1in 58 30
3,3111 2,9103
37,9701 7,7234
63,157 1in 110 29
17,4645
181,435 1in 38 31
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
1,000
2,000
3,000
4,000
5,000
6,000
7,000
8,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$38.40
$23.63
PRISON
PROBATION
AND PAROLE $17.13
$10.25
$83.55
$63.18
$9.76 $6.61
2003 2005 2 2008 003 2005 2008
0
10
20
30
40
$50 million
0
20
40
60
80
$100
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
North Dakota
POPULATION COSTS
1in 63adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 234
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 35 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 27); the figure for 1982 was
29 percent (national rank: 25)
1
$65 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 5.4 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar North Dakota spent
on prisons in 2008, it spent 45 cents on probation
and parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($83.55) = 9 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
4,4681 993
5,098 1in 98 46
3421 1893
1,3681 4594
2,787 1in 179 45
9605
7,885 1in 63 47
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
400,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
TOTALSPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$1,291.74
$124.39
PRISON
PAROLE $79.31 $14.13
$69.23
$19.62
$12.34
$3.75
1983 2 2008 1983 008
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
$80
0
300
600
900
1,200
$1,500 million
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Ohio
POPULATION COSTS
1in 25adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 116
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 22 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 45); the figure for 1982 was
37 percent (national rank: 13)
1
$1.79billion
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 7.3 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Ohio spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 6 cents on parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($69.23) = 6 days of
parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
254,8981 7343
275,774 1in 32 6
17,5751 2,5673
50,7311 4,8144
76,105 1in 115 32
20,5605
351,879 1in 25 6
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
10,000
20,000
30,000
40,000
50,000
60,000
70,000
80,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$518.05
$113.28
PRISON
PROBATION
AND PAROLE
$31.26 $10.39
$52.10
$32.41
$2.75 $1.46
1988 2 2008 1988 008
0
100
200
300
400
500
$600 million
0
10
20
30
40
50
$60
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Oklahoma
POPULATION COSTS
1in 42adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 90
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 55 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 2); the figure for 1982 was 33
percent (national rank: 19)
1
$491 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 7 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Oklahoma spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 6 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($52.10) = 19 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
26,0381 3783
29,747 1in 92 43
2,3491 9823
23,9571 2,2684
35,973 1in 76 7
9,7485
65,720 1in 42 38
Revised as of 03.24.09
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$454.18
$37.43 $89.24
$16.53
$84.43
$29.75
$7.89 $2.54
$12.00
$2.70
$1.50 $31.36
1983 2 2008 1983 008
0
100
200
300
400
$500 million
0
20
40
60
80
$100
PRISON
PROBATION
PAROLE
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Oregon
POPULATION COSTS
1in 33adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 74
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 25 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 42); the figure for 1982 was
24 percent (national rank: 35)
1
$763 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 10.6 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Oregon spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 27 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($84.43) = 7 days of
parole or 11 days of probation5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
43,7321 2243
67,448 1in 43 17
22,6581 8343
13,9251 1,5554
22,141 1in 132 36
6,6615
89,589 1in 33 21
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
300,000
350,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$1,639.66
$141.82 $148.91 $55.10
$97.72
$29.89
$1.81
$1.10 $8.03 $2.94
1983 2 1993 1 2008 1983 993 008
$90.10 $15.51
0
500
1,000
1,500
$2,000 million
PRISON
PROBATION
PAROLE
0
20
40
60
80
$100
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Pennsylvania
POPULATION COSTS
1in 28adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 99
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 25 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 40); the figure for 1982 was
23 percent (national rank: 37)
1
$1.84billion
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 6.7 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Pennsylvania spent
on prisons in 2008, it spent 15 cents on probation
and parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($97.72) = 12 days of
parole or 54 days of probation5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
176,9871 9043
258,905 1in 37 13
78,1071 2,9073
45,9691 6,0474
87,363 1in 111 31
35,3475
346,268 1in 28 14
Revised as of 03.24.09
PROBATION PAROLE PRISON and JAIL
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
35,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$174.54
$21.29
PRISON
PROBATION
AND PAROLE
$13.90 $8.55
$119.96
$53.76
$3.11 $1.50
1983 2 1998 1 2008 1983 998 008
0
40
80
120
160
$200 million
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
$140
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Rhode Island
POPULATION COSTS
1in 26adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 90
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 14 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 49); the figure for 1982 was
14 percent (national rank: 48)
1
$185 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 5.5 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Rhode Island spent
on prisons in 2008, it spent 8 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($119.96) = 39 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
26,1371 373
26,843 1in 31 5
4621 2073
4,0181 3894
4,407 1in 187 46
05
31,250 1in 26 10
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
1983 2003 2008
TOTALSPENDING PER YEAR
$63.71
PRISON
PROBATION AND PAROLE
$394.15
$23.68 $26.35
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
$400 million
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
South Carolina
POPULATION COSTS
1in 38adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 70
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 46 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 8); the figure for 1982 was 37
percent (national rank: 15)
1
$487 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 6.6 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar South Carolina
spent on prisons in 2008, it spent 6 cents on
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
42,7211 5483
47,400 1in 71 39
2,4331 1,6983
23,8621 3,9534
40,952 1in 83 9
13,1375
88,352 1in 38 32
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$56.09
$26.49
$7.81 $1.60
$59.00
$37.76
$3.78
$2.86 $3.69
$4.59
1983 2 1998 1 2008 1983 998 008
0
10
20
30
40
50
$60 million
$3.69 $1.42 0
10
20
30
40
50
$60
PRISON
PROBATION
PAROLE
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
South Dakota
POPULATION COSTS
1in 40adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 130
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 38 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 19); the figure for 1982 was
32 percent (national rank: 21)
1
$81 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 7.1 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar South Dakota spent
on prisons in 2008, it spent 20 cents on probation
and parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($59.00) = 16 days of
parole or 16 days of probation5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
5,8701 2393
9,424 1in 64 36
2,8121 5033
3,2561 1,0754
5,787 1in 104 25
1,4565
15,211 1in 40 36
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$623.06
$96.72
PRISON
PROBATION
AND PAROLE
$79.32
$55.24
$63.90
$35.88
$2.98 $2.95
1983 2 2003 2 2008 1983 003 008
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
$80
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
$800 million
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Tennessee
POPULATION COSTS
1in 40adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 124
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 41 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 14); the figure for 1982 was
46 percent (national rank: 1)
1
$675 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 5.5 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Tennessee spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 13 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($63.90) = 22 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
56,1791 4703
69,496 1in 68 37
10,4961 2,3513
19,2481 5,0944
47,932 1in 98 20
23,5905
117,428 1in 40 37
0
100,000
200,000
300,000
400,000
500,000
600,000
700,000
800,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$2,313.37
$1,757.58
$192.97 $267.12
$42.54
$38.71
$1.92 $2.55
$2.60 $3.51
1998 2 2008 1998 006
$115.52 $156.18
0
500
1,000
1,500
2,000
$2,500 million
0
10
20
30
40
$50
PRISON
PROBATION
PAROLE
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Texas
POPULATION COSTS
1in 22adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 42
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 31 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 30); the figure for 1982 was
20 percent (national rank: 45)
1
$2.96billion
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 6.8 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Texas spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 18 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($42.54) = 12 days of
parole or 17 days of probation5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
434,3091 2,0523
549,725 1in 32 7
101,7481 11,6163
159,0161 20,6284
247,529 1in 71 5
67,8855
797,254 1in 22 4
PER OFFENDER PER DAY
PRISON
PROBATION AND PAROLE
$79.63
$59.28
$3.61 $7.85
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
$80
1988 1999 2008
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
30,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Utah
POPULATION COSTS
1in 64adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 83
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 47 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 6); the figure for 1982 was 17
percent (national rank: 46)
1
$330 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 5.7 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($79.63) = 10 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
10,8291 2073
15,390 1in 120 48
3,5971 7573
5,2231 1,5564
13,633 1in 136 38
6,8545
29,023 1in 64 48
PROBATION PAROLE PRISON and JAIL
0
3,000
6,000
9,000
12,000
15,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$99.92
$22.12
PRISON
$23.28
$8.97
$122.00
$66.51
$6.93 $2.54
1994 2 2008 1994 008
0
20
40
60
80
100
$120 million
PROBATION
AND PAROLE
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
$140
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Vermont
POPULATION COSTS
1in 46adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 73
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 23 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 44); the figure for 1982 was
12 percent (national rank: 51)
1
$116 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 9.4 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Vermont spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 23 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($122.00) = 18 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
7,0591 403
8,208 1in 60 31
9361 1733
2,1451 2694
2,414 1in 204 49
05
10,622 1in 46 42
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
30,000
60,000
90,000
120,000
150,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$739.70
$254.50
PRISON
PROBATION
AND PAROLE
$78.04
$22.56
$66.62
$47.60
$2.65 $3.39
1988 2 2008 1988 008
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
$80
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
$800 million
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Virginia
POPULATION COSTS
1in 46adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 108
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 52 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 4); the figure for 1982 was 40
percent (national rank: 6)
1
$1.25billion
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 7.6 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Virginia spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 11 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($66.62) = 20 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
51,9541 1,1573
62,742 1in 94 44
6,8501 2,7813
32,9721 6,3844
66,939 1in 89 13
27,5835
129,681 1in 46 41
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
50,000
100,000
150,000
200,000
250,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTALSPENDING PER YEAR
1988 2008
CORRECTIONS
$917.00
$178.00
0
200
400
600
800
$1,000 million
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Washington
POPULATION COSTS
1in 30adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 42
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 19 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 46); the figure for 1982 was
14 percent (national rank: 47)
1
$917 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 6.3 percent in fiscal year 20086
Detailed correctional cost data for Washington were not
available.
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
118,8851 3363
133,664 1in 37 12
13,0171 1,4263
17,4101 2,5144
32,061 1in 155 44
12,1375
165,725 1in 30 17
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
5,000
10,000
15,000
20,000
25,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTALSPENDING PER YEAR
CORRECTIONS
PROBATION
1998 2008
$181.00
$62.00
$5.48 $10.89
0
40
80
120
160
$200 million
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
West Virginia
POPULATION COSTS
1in 68adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 226
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 48 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 5); the figure for 1982 was 40
percent (national rank: 7)
1
$181 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 4.7 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar West Virginia spent
on corrections in 2008, 6 cents went to probation5,6
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
7,8901 2003
10,881 1in 131 50
1,8301 9613
4,9071 1,6494
10,184 1in 140 40
3,6285
21,065 1in 68 49
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
20,000
40,000
60,000
80,000
100,000
120,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
1998 2008
TOTALSPENDING PER YEAR
CORRECTIONS
PROBATION AND PAROLE
$1,076.00
$557.00
$174.23
$83.54
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
$1,200 million
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Wisconsin
POPULATION COSTS
1in 39adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in
111 adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 36 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 25); the figure for 1982 was
25 percent (national rank: 32)
1
$1.08billion
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 8 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Wisconsin spent on
corrections in 2008, 16 cents went to probation and
parole5,6
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) National Association of State Budget Officers,
State Expenditure Reports
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007) CORRECTIONSCOSTS
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
53,2301 1873
71,282 1in 60 32
16,9861 8793
23,0281 2,4014
39,360 1in 109 28
13,9315
110,642 1in 39 35
PROBATION PRISON PAROLE JAIL
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
82 87 92 97 02 07
TOTAL SPENDING PER YEAR PER OFFENDER PER DAY
$10.57
PRISON
PROBATION
AND PAROLE
$20.75
$1.65
$121.56
$32.91
$9.64 $2.53
1983 2 2008 1983 008
0
20
40
60
80
$100 million
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
$140
$91.51
1 in 31: The Long Reach of American Corrections
Wyoming
POPULATION COSTS
1in 38adults
1,2
is under correctional control
• Growth over time: in 1982, the figure was 1 in 128
adults1,2
• Percent behind bars: at year end 2007, 40 percent
of the correctional population was in prison or
jail (national rank: 15); the figure for 1982 was
39 percent (national rank: 10)
1
$103 million
6
spent on corrections
• Share of general fund: 5.7 percent in fiscal year 20086
• Ratio ofspending: For every dollar Wyoming spent on
prisons in 2008, it spent 23 cents on probation and
parole5
• Ratio ofcosts: 1 day of prison ($121.56) = 13 days of
probation and parole5
The Pew Charitable Trusts appliesthe power of knowledge to solve today’s most challenging problems. Our Pew Center on the
States(PCS) identifies and advances effective policy approachesto critical issuesfacing states. Launched in 2006 as a project of
PCS, the Public Safety Performance Projectseeksto help states advance fiscally sound, data-driven policies and practicesin
sentencing and correctionsthat protect public safety, hold offenders accountable and control corrections costs.
901 E Street NW | 10th Floor | Washington, DC 20004 | www.pewcenteronthestates.org
SOURCES:
1) Bureau of Justice Statistics, Correctional Surveys (U.S. Department of
Justice); 2) U.S. Census, State Population Estimates; 3) Administrative
Office of U.S. Courts; 4) Bureau of Prisons (U.S. Department of Justice);
5) Pew, Original Data; 6) Wyoming cost figures were reported by the
state Legislative Service Office, January 2009
Download the full report and explanatory notes by visiting
www.pewcenteronthestates.org/publicsafety
CORRECTIONSCOSTS
POPULATION, RATES AND RANKS(YEAR END 2007)
TOTALCORRECTIONAL POPULATION
Population Combined
Population
Share of
adults
National
State Federal rank
Probation
Parole
Prison
Jail
Total
5,3581 303
6,369 1in 63 34
7061 2753
2,0281 6574
4,262 1in 94 17
1,5775
10,631 1in 38 30
Revised as of 03.24.09

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